The Sasanians and Hephthalites

The Kushan Empire did not long survive Kaniska, though for centuries Kushan princes continued to rule in various provinces. Persian Sasanians established control over parts of Afghanistan, including Bagram, in AD 241. In AD 400 a new wave of Central Asian nomads under the Hephthalites took control, only to be defeated in AD 565 by a coalition of Sasanians and Western Turks. From the 5th through the 7th century many Chinese Buddhist pilgrims continued to travel through Afghanistan. The pilgrim HsŁan-tsang (XŁanzang) wrote an important account of his travels, and several of the religious centres he visited, including Hadda, Ghazna, Konduz, Bamian, Shotorak, and Bagram, have been excavated.

 

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